different types of balks in baseball

What is a balk in baseball? A comprehensive Guide

what is a balk in baseball

Ever been puzzled by the term ‘balk’ while enjoying a baseball game? It’s a rule that’s often misunderstood, even by knowledgeable fans. In this article, I’ll explain ‘what is a balk in baseball’, simplifying this complex rule to make it easier for you to follow the game.


What is a Balk in Baseball?

In the simplest of terms, a balk in baseball is an illegal action by a pitcher while one or more runners are on base. This action violates one of the specific sets of rules that regulate the pitcher’s behavior on the mound and can result in these runners advancing bases.

According to the Major League Baseball official rulebook, an act must meet several conditions to be considered a balk.

  1. The pitcher must be on the pitching rubber
  2. There must be at least one runner on base.
  3. The pitcher performs an action specified as illegal. Such as making an illegal motion or failing to complete a throw to a base.

This is a quick definition. The reality is that there’s a great degree of complexity involved in the balk rule.

Purpose of the Balk Rule

The purpose behind implementing the balk rule is to prevent the pitcher from manipulating runners on base and deceiving them. By limiting the pitcher’s actions when runners are on base, the balk rule protects these runners from unfair play.

Imagine you’re on the first base ready to steal second. You’ve been checking the pitcher, watching his every move like a hawk waiting for that perfect moment to take off and the pitcher uses a deceptive motion to pick you off.

These rules create a fun dynamic where the pitcher must carefully choreograph his actions to avoid a balk while the runners watch for the slightest slip-up or “tell” to give them an advantage on the base paths.


The Different Types of Balks

Quick Pitch Balk

The quick pitch balk can be quite tricky to spot, and it primarily involves the pitcher trying to hurry up his pitching action while the batter isn’t ready. This one’s all about timing. Let’s put this into context. In the set position, a pitcher must come to a complete stop. If he pitches too quickly, trying to fool the batter, it’s a quick pitch balk. In professional baseball, this usually means the umpire calls the ball dead and all runners advance one base.

Fake to First Balk

The Fake to First Balk is a classic pitcher’s oversight. Usually, a pitcher can fake a throw to second or third base. But if he fakes a throw to first base while in contact with the rubber and the base is occupied, it counts as a balk. In this case, as well, runners get to advance one base.

Stop and Start Balk

Another interesting balk that baseball fans should be able to identify correctly is the Stop and Start Balk. It’s as straightforward as it sounds. If a pitcher starts his pitch but suddenly stops midway, umpires consider this action a balk. Remember, once a pitcher starts his motion, he must continue through it. The rule of thumb here is that any abrupt or unnatural halt in a continuous pitching motion can be classified as a balk.

Also, in the set position, a pitcher must come to a noticeable stop before delivering the pitch. Failing to do so results in a Balk. This pause is crucial as it allows baserunners to anticipate the pitch.

Dropped Ball Balk

Sometimes, a simple mistake like dropping the ball can lead to a balk. When a pitcher accidentally drops the ball while on the rubber it can mislead baserunners, and to maintain fairness, the umpire will call a balk, allowing runners to advance.

Misdirected Step Balk

The umpire calls a Balk when a pitcher steps toward a direction other than home plate or the intended base during a pitch or pickoff attempt. This rule is vital to prevent pitchers from misleading baserunners with ambiguous foot movements.


How Balks are Called by Umpires

You might be wondering how umpires navigate this rule. It’s not as simple as it may seem at first glance. Umpires must undergo extensive training and maintain extreme vigilance, clearly understanding what constitutes a balk. The call of a balk often comes down to the umpire’s judgment. Over the years, there have been memorable balk incidents in MLB history, highlighting the sometimes subjective nature of this rule.

In a baseball game, the responsibility of calling a balk usually falls on the home plate umpire although any umpire can call it. The umpire crew initially makes the call and then discusses it amongst themselves if there are any objections or disagreements.

Umpires call balks in baseball based on several key observations and criteria:

  • Observation of Pitcher’s Actions: Umpires monitor the pitcher’s movements closely, especially when they are on or touching the rubber.
  • Judgment of Intent: Umpires consider the pitcher’s intent. If a pitcher’s action seems designed to deceive a base runner, it’s likely to be called a balk.
  • Rule Specifics: Umpires refer to specific rules related to balks, such as illegal pitches (like quick pitches), faking throws to an unoccupied base, or not stepping directly toward a base before a throw.
  • Timing of the Call: The umpire makes a balk call during the pitcher’s motion and before the pitch reaches the batter. If the pitch is already in the batter’s box, the play continues without a balk call.
  • Penalty Application: Upon calling a balk, the umpire declares the ball dead, and each runner advances one base.

Consequences of a Balk

Advancing of Runners

Each base runner gets to advance one base when there’s a balk. So, if there’s a runner at first, he gets to advance to second base.

Remember, minor league and youth baseball often operate under different regulations. Sometimes, umpires can call a balk only when certain conditions are met. Despite these variations, the result remains the same. A balk moves runners forward.

Awarding of Bases

In baseball, balks primarily affect base runners rather than the batter, as they lead to runners advancing one base. It’s important to note that a balk does not alter the batter’s count; it neither counts as a ball nor a strike.

In situations with loaded bases, a balk proves crucial as it allows the runner on third to score. This doesn’t award the batter first base but adds pressure on pitchers, especially in high-stakes moments.

Famous PITCHER Balks in Baseball History

1988 MLB Season – “Year of the Balk”: The 1988 MLB season saw a huge increase in balk calls due to stricter enforcement of the balk rule. This change significantly impacted teams, particularly the Oakland Athletics, leading to widespread frustration and controversy among players and fans.

Cincinnati Reds’ Balk-Off Win (2022): In a rare and unusual game conclusion, the Cincinnati Reds won against the Tampa Bay Rays in July 2022 due to a balk in the 10th inning. Rays reliever Matt Wisler’s balk allowed the Reds’ automatic runner to score the winning run.

Richard Bleier’s Three Balks (2022): In a 2022 game against the New York Mets, umpires called Miami Marlins’ Richard Bleier for three balks in one inning, leading to his and manager Don Mattingly’s ejection. This was a notable event as Bleier had not balked in his previous seven MLB seasons, underscoring the unusual and impactful nature of the incident.

Final thoughts

Getting to know the balk rule in baseball is important, even though it might seem a bit tricky at first. It’s not a rule that comes up all the time in major league games, but it’s still good to know about it.

For young players learning the game, understanding balks is part of becoming better at baseball. For parents and fans, knowing this rule makes watching the games even more fun because you get what s happening on the field. Just remember, rules like the balk are there to make sure the game is fair and fun for everyone.

So, whether you’re playing, watching, or just chatting about baseball, keep these ideas in mind. They make the game more interesting and enjoyable, no matter how old you are.

Frequently Asked Questions

What exactly is a balk in baseball?

A balk is an illegal action by a pitcher that deceives baserunners, resulting in each runner advancing one base.

Can a balk be called if there are no runners on base?

No, a balk is only applicable when there are runners on base, as its purpose is to prevent deceiving these runners.

Does a balk count as a ball or a strike against the batter?

No, a balk does not affect the batter’s count; it solely results in baserunners advancing one base.

What happens if a pitcher commits a balk but continues to pitch?

If a balk is called but the pitcher continues and delivers the pitch, the play is immediately dead, and the balk ruling stands.

Are balk rules the same in Major League Baseball and Little League?

While the fundamental concept of a balk is consistent, the enforcement and some specific rules can vary between Major League Baseball and Little League.

Can a balk result in a run being scored?

Yes, if the bases are loaded and a balk is called, the runner on third base is allowed to score.

How do umpires decide when to call a balk?

Umpires call a balk based on their observation and judgment of the pitcher’s actions, particularly any movement that could deceive baserunners.

Chris F.

Chris F.

Chris Forbes is the founder and editor of BaseballMode.com, a leading blog in the youth baseball space. As a lifelong baseball player, coach and fan, he decided to team up with his young son to offer advice and share their experiences with the sport they both love. Chris lives in the Boston area with his wife and three children.
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